This information gathered for this quiz comes from PsychologyChapter 4: Learning and Behavioral Theory. When you have responded to all items, click the Score button at the bottom of the page.
Skinner is considered the father of behaviorism. In the original classical conditioning experiments, the sound of the bell is considered the conditioned response. Quiz: Learning and Behavioral Theory. In the original classical conditioning experiments, the salivation after being presented with food is considered an unconditioned response. In Operant conditioning, the response comes after the consequence. Positive reinforcement refers to adding something positive in order to increase the probability of a behavior occurring.
Negative reinforcement refers to the adding of something negative in order to reduce the probability of a behavior occurring. Slot machines work well because they are based on a variable ratio schedule of reinforcement. Not using a candy machine again after losing money one time represents a major problem with variable interval schedules of reinforcement. The experiments in classical conditioning were originally developed by Ivan Pavlov after accidentally stumbling on the phenomenon.
Conditioning could be considered synonymous with learning in that a conditioned response occurs only after it has been learned.Sign in. Don't have an account? We weren't able to detect the audio language on your flashcards. Please select the correct language below. Add to folder [? Find out how you can intelligently organize your Flashcards. You have created 2 folders. Please upgrade to Cram Premium to create hundreds of folders! Flashcards FlashCards Essays. Create Flashcards. Share This Flashcard Set Close.
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Upgrade Cancel. Study your flashcards anywhere! How to study your flashcards. Play button. Card Range To Study through. What is Learning to Behaviorist? A relatively change in behavior that arises from practice or experience, they only measure behavior.
Unconditional Stimulus. Neutral Stimulus NS :. Conditioned Stimulus. Taste Aversion: Different than classical conditioning because? Process by which a conditioned stimulus loses the ability to elicit conditioned responses. Why does extinction happen? Happen because the conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with the unconditioned stimulus. Spontaneous Recovery.
The recovery of a Conditioned Response after extinction. The tendency for a Conditioned response to be evoked by stimuli similar to the original Conditioned Stimulus. Organisms must: learn that many stimuli perceived as being similar are functionally different, Respond adaptively to each. High-Order Conditioning.To login with Google, please enable popups.
In order to obtain a reward a monkey learns to press a lever when a Hz tone is on but not when a Hz tone is on. What kind of training is this? What is a correct statement concerning reinforcement? Learning is most rapid with continuous reinforcement, but intermittent reinforcement produces the greatest resistance to extinction.
US; CR. US; CS. During what may classical conditioning play a role? After exploring a complicated maze for several days, a rat subsequently ran the maze with very few errors when food was placed in the goal box for the first time. This performance illustrates. What is a good example of a conditioned reinforce? You always rattle the box of biscuits before giving your dog a treat.
As you do so, your dog salivates. CS; CR. You teach your dog to fetch the paper by giving him a cookie each time he does so. A pigeon can easily be taught to flap its wings in order to avoid shock but not for reinforcement. After discovering that her usual route home was closed due to road repairs, Sharetta used her knowledge of the city and sense of direction to find an alternate route.
What are examples of reinforcement? For operant conditioning to be MOST effective, when should the reinforcers be presented in relation to the desired response? Only some of the time. What term best accounts for their behavior?As we delve deeper into our studies on the topic of advanced placement psychology, the subject matter becomes a little bit more difficult.
Forgot your password? Speak now. AP Psychology Chapter 6 Quiz. Please take the quiz to rate it. All questions 5 questions 6 questions 7 questions 8 questions. Feedback During the Quiz End of Quiz. Play as Quiz Flashcard. Title of New Duplicated Quiz:. Duplicate Quiz Cancel. More Ap Psychology Quizzes. AP Psychology Sociopath Quiz. Memory - AP Psychology. AP Psychology Quiz. Featured Quizzes.Estradiol 1 mg weight loss
The Office Trivia Quiz! What U. City Should You Live In? Related Topics. Questions and Answers. Remove Excerpt. Removing question excerpt is a premium feature. Gibson and Walk developed the visual cliff to test depth perception in what type of people? What is Convergence? The more our eyes focus inward when we view an object, the nearer the object.
The more our eyes focus outward when we view an object, the farther an object.
Psychology Chapter 6: Learning
The less our eyes focus inward when we view an object, the nearer the object. The less our eyes focus outward when we view and object, the nearer an object. Back to top.
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Shuffle Cards. Front Back What is encoding? The first stage in memory.Flowhooks paste
Getting in sensory information intoa a form that the brain can use. Encoding is the set of mental operations that people perform on sensory information to convert it into a form that is usable in the brain's storage systems. The second stage of memory. Holding on to the information for some period of time.
This period will actually be of different lengths, depending on the stage of memory being used. This is the biggest problem people have; getting the information they know out of storage. What might be a representation of the shallowest and highest level of information processing Craik and Lockhart's work?
Shallow processing is like explaining what a word looks like ie all caps, italizied, in cursive not really understanding what the word is or how it is related to other stuff.
The highest level of information processing is putting meaning to the word and relating it to other things that you already know. This will you to retain it more and recall it faster. Why did Sperling's research participants recall so few letters stored in sensory memory? Because they were reading the row of letters and not taking in the whole picture so to speak. We have a tendency to read left to right starting from the top.
This is visual sensory memory. An example would be when sperling made the grid and the subjects looked at the whole thing and for a short time after they were able to recall any row.Skip to main content. Lead Author s : Openstax Content. Source: OpenStax. Get your students excited about solving Psychology problems by engaging them every step of the way with this interactive text by OpenStax.
Download EPUB. This content is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4. The summer sun shines brightly on a deserted stretch of beach. Suddenly, a tiny grey head emerges from the sand, then another and another. Soon the beach is teeming with loggerhead sea turtle hatchlings Figure 6.
Although only minutes old, the hatchlings know exactly what to do. Their flippers are not very efficient for moving across the hot sand, yet they continue onward, instinctively. Some are quickly snapped up by gulls circling overhead and others become lunch for hungry ghost crabs that dart out of their holes.
Despite these dangers, the hatchlings are driven to leave the safety of their nest and find the ocean.Nako yarn nz
Not far down this same beach, Ben and his son, Julian, paddle out into the ocean on surfboards. A wave approaches. Julian crouches on his board, then jumps up and rides the wave for a few seconds before losing his balance. He emerges from the water in time to watch his father ride the face of the wave. Unlike baby sea turtles, which know how to find the ocean and swim with no help from their parents, we are not born knowing how to swim or surf.
Yet we humans pride ourselves on our ability to learn.
Psychology Chapter 6 Test
In fact, over thousands of years and across cultures, we have created institutions devoted entirely to learning. But have you ever asked yourself how exactly it is that we learn? What processes are at work as we come to know what we know? This chapter focuses on the primary ways in which learning occurs. Birds build nests and migrate as winter approaches.
Dogs shake water off wet fur.
Salmon swim upstream to spawn, and spiders spin intricate webs. What do these seemingly unrelated behaviors have in common? They all are unlearned behaviors.
Both instincts and reflexes are innate behaviors that organisms are born with. Reflexes are a motor or neural reaction to a specific stimulus in the environment. They tend to be simpler than instincts, involve the activity of specific body parts and systems e.
In contrast, instincts are innate behaviors that are triggered by a broader range of events, such as aging and the change of seasons. They are more complex patterns of behavior, involve movement of the organism as a whole e. Both reflexes and instincts help an organism adapt to its environment and do not have to be learned. For example, every healthy human baby has a sucking reflex, present at birth. Babies are born knowing how to suck on a nipple, whether artificial from a bottle or human.After having been struck by a car, a dog now exhibits fear response every time a car approaches.
The dog has undergone a process of. This causes the person to twitch. After a while, the participant twitches as soon as the tone sounds. Tammy is interested in helping her daughter learn manners. Each time her daughter says something that is close to appropriate, she rewards her. Eventually, her daughter should learn good manners.
This is an example of. Lilly is eating a hot dog. After this, Lilly hates eating hot dogs. Even the thought makes her sick. According to Skinner, the most important environmental aspect that controls human behavior is the. On what reinforcement schedule is rewarded?
Lian has an intense phobia of birds. Her psychologist believes that in order to alleviate her phobia, Lian must be placed in a room where she is surrounded by birds. Students in Mr. After a student receives ten gold stars, he or she earns a pencil. Winn is using an operant conditioning technique known as.
Jillian was out past curfew on Saturday. As a result, her parents took away her driving privileges. Jillian no longer stays out past curfew. According to Skinner, which type of punishment did Jillian experience? According to the principles of classical conditioning, what is the conditioned stimulus? A rat receives a food pellet after a certain desired behavior is performed after an elapsed time of 45 seconds.
According to the principles of observational learning, what is the seven-year-old Robert most likely to do after watching a violent television program?
When experiencing a situation similar to what he saw on the television program, he will imitate what he saw. A group of ranchers attempts to discourage coyotes from attacking their sheep by placing a substance on the wool of the sheep that makes coyotes violently ill if they eat it.Unit 6 Myers' Psychology for AP - Part 1
Very quickly, the coyotes avoid the sheep entirely. Jackson, an English teacher, gives random quizzes to her students at some point during every marking period. This is an example of:.Deca company
Back home a week later, he is contemplating a holiday trip. Research is currently under way to see if the reverse is possible if conditioning can be used to increase immune functioninga discovery that would surely have important implications for new medical treatments. Operant conditioning takes place as a result of some voluntary action, while classical conditioning takes place without choice.
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